" The earliest known woven fabric was apparently of hemp, which began to be worked in the eigth millenium (8,000 - 7,000BC)" (The Columbia History of the World, 1981,page 54)
The body of literature (archaeologists, anthropologists, philologists, economists, historians, etc.) is in agreement that, at the very least:
From more than 1,000 years before the birth of Christ until 1883AD., Cannabis hemp - indeed, Marijuana -- was our planets largest agricultural crop and most important industry for thousands of products and enterprises; producing the overall majority of Earths fibre, fabric, lighting oil, paper, incense and medicines, as well s a primary source of essential food, oil and protein for humans and animals.
From The Emperor Wears No Clothes by Jack Herer
Cannabis Sativa L, Cannabis Indica, Cannabis Ruderalis (Hemp),
The Possibilities are endless
Hemp fibres are up to 4 times stronger than cotton, more durable, softer, resistant to mildew. Furthermore clothes made from hempcan be recycled to make rag paper. Some fine clothes were traditionally made from hemp fibre, including some of the finest linens.
The well known fabric Denim was originally made in America from hemp;
shipped from France in bales labelled Chenvre de Nimes, chenvre being French for hemp eventually shortened to Denim.
The 'Father of History' Herodotus mentions the Thracians produced the finest cloth from hemp.
Ropes, Sails, Charts and Maps were all traditionally made from hemp.
Oakum was prepared from cannabis fibres taken from rope steeped in tars and pressed. It was an ideal sealant for the hulls of wooden ships.
Hemp plants (Cannabis) grow up to 15 feet tall. Rope was traditionally made from fibres from the upright stems of the plant. It was very strong but it had to be dipped in tar to make the ropes waterproof and needed subsequent re-coating.
Hemp plants do not need a hot climate. Rope makers used hemp from Lincolnshire, Russia and Italy.
Most medieval books and bibles were made from cannabis fibres, of much better quality than wood pulp papers and capable of lasting for thousands of years.
Paper money was usually made from hemp as it was far more durable than wood pulp paper.
Hemp paper can be recycled up to 7 times nearly twice that of other papers.
The earliest piece of paper that exists was made from hemp c.100BC. from China.
The Dutch word 'canvas' is derived from the Latin word 'cannabis'.
For both Tents, Ideal for Tarpaulin not only because of it's fire retardent , mildew resistance and partial shower proofing properties but also as a woven cloth it's fibres are Thermo-dynamic meaning it retains warmth in cold but is cooling when it's hot. and Artwork.
Varnishes, Adhesives and Glues traditionally had cannabis in their composition'
Historically were often made from cannabis fibres.
Hemp concrete, fibreboards stronger than plywood and re-usable shuttering for concrete mouldings are just some of the applications traditionally used in the building trade.
In the South of France there is a bridge c.500AD. made from a material traditionally known as Isochanvre described as the process of maneralization of sap and resin.
Terry Waite CBE. World-renowned humanitarian and author had a guest house built using hemp for the walls, floor and ceilings, the hemp was delivered in the form of chippings or shavings, in paper sacks from a French firm named;
Chevonette Habitat, whose owner Mme. France Perier, claimed that the Pyramids were built using the hemp, lime and water recipe she had discovered. This hemp, lime, water mix was cast into panels, it's as flxible as cement but 6 times lighter, making it easier to work with. It's also stronger, concrete structures strat to detiorate immediately, whereas Hempcrete continues to gain strength because lime absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as it sets. After construction the hempcrete continues to absorb carbon and continues to get stronger, acting as a very much needed carbon sink.
A method very similar to this can also applied to produce 'Hemp Metal'. The German automobile manufacturer Mercedes were testing the material for car panels. Whereas BMW have been using this method for their dashboards for years.
Henry Ford is known to have used hemp, along with pine fibres, straw and ramie for his famous Model T built to run on hemp biomass fuel. When exhibited the car was powered by a 60 horse power Ford V-8 engine, the panels could withstand a blow 10 time heavier than a similar car with steel panels before denting, meaning it was safer. It was also much lighter than a steel car so more fuel efficient.
Lamp and Lubricating oils.
Hemp was cleaner burning than Flax oil.
Available today but generally only from specialist suppliers and looked upon as more of a gimmick than a serious product, which is a great pity as it makes luxurious soap. It is becoming more widespread and is likely to continue to do so as a sideline from one of the many newly formed modern hemp industries.
The seed itself can be made into porridge, flour, breads or indeed anything that is flour based. The oil was traditionally used as a salad dressing, to make margarine and food supplements, i.e. Omega oil. The leaves are often used as a delicious salad vegetable or to make a soothing infusion. The seed was also pressed into cakes to make animal fodder.
As long ago ago as the 1930s organic engineers such as Henry Ford knew (as do their intellectual, scientific heirs today) that up to 90% of all fossil fuels used in the world then as today (Coal, oil, natural gas, etc) could and should be replaced by Biomass such as cannabis, corn stalks and waste paper.
Biomass can be converted to methane, methanol and Petroleum at a fraction of the cost of fossil fuels or nuclear energy, especially if factoring in the environmental damage (cost) caused by these technologies which would also contribute to reversing climate change. This could be achieved through a process known as Pyrolysis (charcoaling) or biochemical composting into fuels.
But why Hemp in particular? When considered on a planet, climate and soil wide scale Cannabis is at least four times richer in sustainable, renewable biomass potential than its nearest rivals -- cornstalks, sugarcane, etc.
Of course with the planet wide addiction to fossil fuels lobbyists for fossil fuel companies would argue these technologies are no better for the environment, but this is simply untrue.
The difference is obvious; Fossil fuels put ancient carbon back into the atmosphere, whereas Biomass comes from living plants that continue to remove carbon dioxide pollutants from our air as they grow through Photosynthesis, plus biomass fuels do not contain sulphur.
Taken either by eating, drinking an infusion, applying a topical oil or ointment and yes... even smoking pure cannabis alleviates the symptoms of many ailments. The application would depend on the ailment and individuals preferences.
Cannabis was for centuries the 2nd most Folk Medicine in the world against a huge array of ailments, further to this with the attitude towards Medical Cannabis on the change we are likely to see an upsurge of it's use for many more.
Below is a list of ailments that have either traditionally been treated with cannabis and some modern conditions that have shown great promise and often complete from it's use;
AIDS, Alzheimers, Arthritis, Asthma, Cancers including the shrinking of tumours, Cystic Fibrosis, Dementia, Depression, Emphysema, Epilepsy, Glaucoma, Herpes, High Blood Pressure, Insomnia, Migraines and other headaches, Mulyiple Sclerosis, Muscular cramping i.e. Period pains, Nausea, Pain (including severe neuropathic pain and chemotherapy related pains, both of which I can personally vouch for it's efficacy), Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome, Schizophrenia (despite the Reefer Madness style publicity the plant recieved a while back, in a balanced plant, not as is often grown for High Toxicology under the shadow of prohibition), Tourettes Syndrome and just a little one to add on the end to aid in the fight against drug and alcohol addiction.
Cannabis one of our most versatile and therefore valuable plant resources
A Medicine of the Past or a Cure for the Future Cannabis Sativa (L) Medicine for an ailing environment
With over 25,000 known uses,
Not only could Cannabis be used as a medicine for our species but also as a medicine for our entire planet.
Hemp grows without the need for pesticides and agrochemicals.
Fossil fuels are literally choking us to Death.
Hemp Biomass along with other types of sustainable energy production are imperative.
Textiles that are softer and more durable. Hemp cloth is fire retardant and mildew resistant.
Hemp Building materials don’t leach toxins into the earth either during or after production. Furthermore Hemp Bricks and Hemp concrete act as a carbon sink reducing carbon in the air.
Hemp seeds are more nutritious than Soya and easier to grow. Yet more important Hemp does not impede the bodies calcium intake unlike Soya, essential for growth in children.
Hemp paper can be recycled 7 times unlike most other paper which can only be recycled 3 times.
As a Folk Medicine Cannabis is unpopular mostly from the point of view of Multinational Pharmaceutical Corporations and their lobbyists.
By Rocky van de Benderskum
Potential for Medicinal Cannabis Uses
A short list of ailments, and conditions alleviated by the illegal use of an amazing plant. This list was prepared a number of years ago and has of course been added to with research worldwide. Research is continuing and eventually we will have a full understanding of this miracle plant.
Although the body has no defence sufferers report a feeling of well being and contentment from cannabis use.
"Few medical conditions can detract from a person’s sense of health and happiness like HIV/AIDS. In the past few decades, medical marijuana has become an increasingly common prescription for patients as they attempt to manage the many devastating symptoms of this disease. Today, nearly one in three HIV/AIDS patients turn to cannabis to ward off pain, nausea, appetite loss, cachexia, and emotional decline, a surprising statistic when you consider the social stigma and political blockades surrounding the disease."
Whilst the effect on male impotence is not proven Cannabis can greatly assist low libido and decrease anxiety.
Alzheimer’s Disease ;
Slows down deterioration and is thought to reduce the risk of developing the disease.
A preclinical study published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease found that very small doses of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a chemical found in marijuana, can slow the production of beta-amyloid proteins, thought to be a hallmark characteristic and key contributor to the progression of Alzheimer’s.
The study, published in 2014, is among others to support the effectiveness of THC in prohibiting the growth of toxic amyloid plagues.
Co-author of the study, Neel Nabar, cautions against drawing quick conclusions from their study saying:
“It’s important to keep in mind that just because a drug may be effective doesn’t mean it can be safely used by anyone. However, these findings may lead to the development of related compounds that are safe, legal, and useful in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.”
Cannabis can ease the pain and discomfort of swollen, painful and twisted joints.
"While cannabis is classified as a Schedule I drug by the federal government, meaning it’s considered highly addictive with no medical value and research on it is severely restricted — a scientific consensus has nevertheless emerged on its therapeutic value based on a growing body of successful preclinical and clinical trials. To the delight of many, those studies show that cannabis has anti-inflammatory effects that can help arthritis patients live happier, healthier lives.
Consequently, cannabis is gaining popularity as a treatment for arthritis. Cannabis can ease pain and reduce swelling without the potentially life-threatening side effects caused by frequent NSAID or opiate use."
85% of asthma sufferers can alleviate the symptoms by vaporising cannabis. The use of cannabis to alleviate asthma goes back over centuries
""Taking a hit of marijuana has been known to stop a full blown asthma attack." (Personal communication with Dr. Donald Tashkin, December 12, 1989 and December 1, 1997.) The use of cannabis for asthmatics goes back thousands of years in literature. American doctors of the last century wrote glowing reports in medical papers that asthma sufferers of the world would "bless" Indian hemp (cannabis) all their lives."
Cancer and Cancerous Tumours;
Cannabis can help control and even reduce benign and cancerous tumours plus alleviate the nausea and pain from chemotherapy.
The four ways cannabis kills cancer cells;
1. Antiproliferative; One of the qualities of a useful anti-cancer medicine is the ability to halt the growth (proliferation) of malignant cells. As it turns out, compounds isolated from the cannabis plant have been found to slow the proliferation of various types of cancer, including breast, prostate, and lung cancers.
2. Anti-metastatic; Metastasis is when cancer cells migrate from one part of the body to make a home on another. This process is why someone who was diagnosed with breast cancer may end up with cancer of the lung, brain, or elsewhere.
Metastatic cancers are among some of the most difficult to treat, and preventing metastasis is another major target for developers of anti-cancer drugs. As you might guess, research suggests that cannabis prevents cancer cells from spreading and adhering to new, healthy tissues.
3. Anti-angiogenic; A tumor has to eat. Tumors steal nutrients and oxygen from healthy parts of the body by developing new blood vessels. This phenomenon is known as angiogenesis and it is one of the mechanisms the tumor uses to grow.
In both laboratory and animal research, cannabis compounds have successfully halted the development of new blood vessels to tumor cells. This cuts of the tumors food supply and encourages death by starvation.
4. Pro-apoptotic; The final way cannabis has killed cancer cells both in laboratory and animal models is through suicide. That’s right, treatment with cannabis compounds caused cancer cells to kill themselves. The more technical term for this phenomenon is apoptosis, which is a natural capability of normal cells.
In a healthy person, cells that are damaged or aged can undergo a process of programmed cell death. But, for some reason, cancer cells have stopped responding to signals that would otherwise cause them to self-destruct.
Exocrine glands that affect the Pancreas and Intestines, Bronchial and Sweat glands become disrupted. Breathing and eating becomes impaired by Mucus. Cannabis can be used as a local analgesic which can go a long way towards relieving symptoms.
"Recent findings suggest that a lipid imbalance (high arachidonic acid/low DHA) is a primary factor in the etiology of CF and that defective CFTR (CF transmembrane conductor regulator) that characterizes the CF condition is responsible for the dysregulation. Endocannabinoids are all fatty acid derivatives. Therefore, it is further proposed here that the CFTR gene product also modulates endocannabinoid synthesis, through regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis. According to this hypothesis, CF patients display decreased levels of endocannabinoids and by elevating these levels, symptoms may improve. Indeed, a number of physiological mechanisms of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids coincide with the pathology of CF. Thus it is suggested that potential benefits from THC treatment, in addition to appetite stimulation, will include antiemetic, bronchodilating, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal and hypo-algesic effects."
Cannabis is believed to delay the onset in elderly sufferers but not recommended for those with cardio-vascular complaints.
Cannabis has been successfully used to aid people with depression and is less harmful and habit forming than anti-depressant drugs.
"Over the past decade, research has revealed something fascinating about depression. During a depressive episode, brain inflammation rises. Inflammation causing proteins called cytokines are abundant in the brains of depressed people. This causes all sorts of trouble. The immune system activates as if it is fighting off some kind of chronic infection. Except, that “infection” just happens to be your own brain.
This theory is the “Immune Cytokine Model of Depression“. The theory draws from the wealth of evidence connecting excess inflammation and depression. It states that depression is not a disease per se, but rather a chronic activation of the immune system.
Genetics, stress, and environmental factors contribute to whether this inflammation manifests as depression. Perhaps this is why depression feels a lot like having the flu. This is where cannabis comes in. The herb is a potent anti-inflammatory. Recent research has found that cannabis decreases inflammation in the brain. In 2014, scientists from Tel Aviv University found that low doses of THC reduce brain swelling.
Vaporising Cannabis causes an expansion of the bronchi and bronchioles leading to increased oxygenation thus making deteriorated lungs more efficient.
"In recent medical developments, it’s been found that medical marijuana has shown efficacy in treating respiratory illness, and it has been linked to holding anti-inflammatory properties. These beneficial chemicals latent in marijuana are called cannabinoids and are known to have several additional functions including:
In as many as 60% of cases there coud be a positive effect with Cannabis leading to a reduction in seizures.
There are many studies worldwide here are some;
Will cannabis help in treating epilepsy?
Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Hard Evidence at Last?
Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use in pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy
Eases increased sensitivity to pain, fatigue (extreme tiredness) and muscle stiffness, difficulty sleeping, problems with mental processes (known as "fibro-fog") and headaches, associated with this disorder.
In cases where Cannabis treatment has been tested as many as 90% have been successful. It’s effect on intraocular pressure is three times that of prescription drugs.
Although there is no known cure cannabis tinctures kill the herpes virus on contact, reduce both recurrence and blister healing times.
High Blood Pressure;
Ingesting Cannabis extends the arteries which causes a reduction in pressure.
Cannabis eaten an hour before sleep gives, a better quality sleep than attained with prescription drugs without residual drowsiness or feelings of a hangover.
The consumption of Cannabis reverses the convulsive narrowing of arteries but also takes away the feelings of nausea migraine headaches cause.
Well known to be effective towards reducing the muscular spasms and twitching associated with this disorder, but also aids in attaining feelings of contentment and wellbeing.
Ingested or used as a topical balm Cannabis is an exceptional non morphine based anti-spasmodic.
Relief can often be found fro nausea especially useful after chemotherapy and as an appetite enhancer for those with eating disorders.
Chronic pain is probably the widest medicinal use of Cannabis.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder;
Cannabis has been effectively used to relieve a wide range of psychological symptoms from Depression right through to Anger and Rage.
Despite reports over the years from ‘experts’ that Cannabis causes schizophrenia, it is now known that the Cannabinoid CBD (Cannabiderol) inhibits this disorder. Hybrid strains produced by criminal gangs to make more money on the black market, containing less and less CBD along with the increased use of PGRs (Plant Growth Regulators), chemical hormones to increase/accelerate growth rate are widely thought to be the cause, proving once again that PROHIBITION is a harmful entity.
Cannabis use reduces the compulsion to TICK or to behave/speak in inappropriate ways.
Killer Drug turns Doctor to Bat and all that Palaver
Two puffs on a marijuana cigarette and I turned into a bat flew round the room and into a 200 foot inkwell claimed Dr James Munch, under oath in court. Dr. Munch a Pharmacologist of Temple University, Philadelphia, USA was expert witness for the Federal Bureau of Narcotics and US Government , from 1938 – 1962 stating the effect he had from marijuana, he administered during a series of scientific tests using dogs as he believed the efects of cannabis was the same for both dogs and humans. Well of course it’s laughable that anyone could believe such claptrap. Nevertheless his word was heard these now infamous words, crop up every now and again, well in my world at least. I read something years ago and it made me curious as to why Anslinger and his cronies (which I’ve just looked up and it means friends) hated cannabis so much.
So first of all where does Harry J Anslinger fit into the equation? Well back in the 1930s, his wife’s uncle the Secretary of the US Treasury Department Andrew Mellon and a very powerful industrialist with interests as diverse as DuPont and General Motors and not averse to political leverage in favour of his own businesses appointed him head of the newly formed Federal Bureau of Narcotics. So first look at Mellon’s business interests and there is an undeniable link between the myriad uses of Hemp/Cannabis as opposed to coal, lumber and the new upcoming fossil oil based, petroleum, nylon and plastics industries.
Anslinger wasted no time whatsoever in his goal to demolish the Hemp industries. If we just backtrack a little to 1919 a new machine called the decorticator had just been patented on 1st July by George W Schlichten which would have revolutionised the stripping of hemp as separating the fibres from the hurds had always been problematic. The first fully operative decorticator went to work in a spinning mill owned by John D Rockefeller, who tried unsuccessfully to buyout the patent. However investors were needed to market and develop the invention but were in short supply one though Harry Timken the owner of Timken Roller Bearing Company wanted to develop it for both fibre and paper production, and met with Edward W Scripps of Scripps Newspaper Company, who along with William Hearst owned vast areas of Woodlands and Forests which would be severely devalued by the development of alternatives for paper.
Alongside these industries that hemp was seen as a threat to, there was also the Multinational Pharmaceutical and Petrochemical Conglomerate owned by Lammont Du Pont that bore his name this using fossil fuels to manufacture fuels and medicines and the recent invention of nylon synthetic fibres. Something had to be done to put a metaphorical spanner in the works. So the FBN drafted the Marijuana Tax Act which would put hemp production under the jurisdiction of the Treasury Department.
Between 1935 and 1937 Du Pont persistently lobbied Herman Oliphant, chief counsel to the US Treasury Dept. Mellon Secretary to the US Treasury piled pressure on for federal legislation, not only was he Anslinger’s uncle in law but also Du Pont’s banker and a major shareholder in both Du Pont and Golf Oil and a large coal mining company.
With Hearst vilifying Mexicans and by association marijuana in print for many years and the recent Reefer Madness Campaign apparently made by a church group (although this is uncertain the films were later purchased and added to by notorious exploitation film producer Dwain Esper) the newly revived hemp industries were in for a rough ride.
Of course the sneaky part is the use of the word Marijuana often these days thought of as a racist word, I’ll not get into semantics here but will briefly look at the word and how it became known. Most people will have heard of the song “La Cucaracha” which translated literally means “The Cockroach”, in the song the cockroach loses one of its legs which makes it difficult to get around the words have changed over the years but many of the changes have highlighted political or social conditions originally included the following words;
La cucaracha, la cucaracha The cockroach, the cockroach
Ya no puede caminar Cannot walk anymore
Porque no tiene Because it hasn’t
porque le falta because it lacks
Marihuana que fumar marijuana to smoke
Quite possibly where the word marijuana entered the western world at first unnoticed but also a possible origin to the word Roach as the butt of a joint or spliff.
Pancho Villa revolutionary commander and one of the most prominent figures of the Mexican Revolution is generally one of the first names that comes to mind when the history and literal meaning of “La Cucaracha” is questioned. The revolutionary version was reportedly sung by Villa’s troops during battle they managed to secure 800,000 acres of land mostly forest from William Hearst earmarked for timber and paper production possibly the catalyst for the Mexican revolution and it’s also the adaptation that most notably references cannabis.
Hearst was renowned for anti Mexican propaganda printed in his many media outlets he also ran anti hemp ads in 20 daily newspapers, 11 Sunday newspapers in 13 cities, which provided huge support to the campaign for the Marijuana Tax Act. It is no coincidence Hearst stood to lose a fortune as hemp production threatened the value of wood pulp.
Once passed the Marijuana Tax Act 1937 due to its bureaucratic, legal and financial barriers made it nearly impossible to be successful in the hemp industries. Strange that in a time of industrial decline a resource hailed as the new billion dollar crop by popular Mechanics Magazine would be doomed to failure.
Had the greed of the conglomerate of Hearst, DuPont, Mellon, Rockefeller and the racial hatred of Anslinger not won the day back in history it’s possible the climate of the world we currently live in may not have undergone such cataclysmic changes.
Rocky van de Benderskum
With thanks and referenced to;
Cannabis A History by Matin Booth
A focus group for the signatories of the pending letter to ALL UK Human and Civil Rights solicitors, hoping that at least one might agree there is a case to be answered by the government for its willful misinformation of the British public, the denial of medicine and the denial of several fundamental rights and freedoms.
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